A recent perspective paper in Natural Climate Change offers novel approaches to dramatically reducing the consumption of resources and fossil fuel air pollution. This study, led by Felix Creutzig of the Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change (MCC) in Berlin, Germany, involves inputs from IIASA researchers Alessio Mastrucci, Charlie Wilson, and Volker Krey, as well as numerous collaborators from IIASA’s CircEUlar and EDITS research projects. The authors provide an optimistic scenario for climate protection, picturing a future in which fossil fuel use is significantly reduced.

More Materials, More Challenges?

The phase-out of fossil fuels naturally reduces the production of raw supplies related to the exploitation of natural coal, gas, and oil. This move reduces not only greenhouse gas emissions but also other contaminants. However, a fundamental question arises: would the increased need for essential supplies and land for backing renewable energy innovations, electric automobiles, and sustainable transportation infrastructure have new environmental and social consequences?

Volker Krey, the leader of IIASA’s Integrated Assessment and Climate Change Research Group, discusses: “Material extraction and streams of waste, the construction of new structures, corresponding alterations to land use, and the introduction of new types of services and products related to carbon reduction will create social and environmental stresses at local to regional levels.” Krey emphasizes the importance of so-called precious metals for wind power plants and electric automobiles, as well as cobalt and lithium for batteries and building materials for environmentally friendly structures.

Helmut Haberl of the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU) in Vienna, a research coauthor, says, “Our study presents an overview of the social, ecological, and geographic hazards of these materials.” These include the relocation of people from living areas where natural resources are harvested, health consequences from hazardous emissions, fatalities and injuries from accidents at work, cartel frameworks, corruption, and other issues.”

Effects of Material Extraction:

Resource mining for renewable energy technology has numerous obstacles. Mining for precious metals like cobalt, lithium, and other commodities can degrade the ecosystem by destroying habitats, polluting soil and water, and increasing greenhouse gas emissions. These activities frequently occur in areas with inadequate environmental rules, worsening the ecological imprint.

Furthermore, the social consequences of material extraction are substantial. Mining activities may cause local communities to be displaced, lose their livelihoods, and experience health problems. In some situations, mining activities have been related to human rights violations, such as child labor and unsafe working conditions. Addressing these issues necessitates strict regulatory frameworks, international collaboration, and the adoption of sustainable mining techniques.

Reducing Material Demand:

To address these concerns, the report emphasizes the significance of minimizing energy and resource consumption through demand-side methods. According to Felix Creutzig, “Our study indicates that there is a significant opportunity to reduce consumption of resources and energy without requiring restrictions.”

Demand-side approaches are critical in decreasing the requirement for new materials. These measures include increasing resource efficiency, substituting personal mobility with joint or public transportation, recycling or reusing existing supplies, and thermally upgrading buildings.

Enhancing Resource Efficiency:

Improving resource efficiency entails maximizing the use of resources and energy during the lifecycle of goods and services. This can be accomplished by a variety of methods, including:

Planning for Efficiency:

Producing goods and structures that consume less material and energy during production and operation.

Workflow Optimization:

Applying innovative production techniques and technology to reduce waste and energy usage.

Energy Utilization:

Improving the energy utilization of buildings, gadgets, and manufacturing operations through energy-efficient innovations, and smart systems.  

These approaches not only minimize resource consumption, but they additionally decrease operational costs and increase economic competitiveness.

Fostering Shared Mobility and Public Transportation:

The study emphasizes the possibility of shared transportation solutions. Models that encourage car and ride-sharing services can considerably reduce the need for private automobiles, lowering both material use and emissions. These shared mobility options not only reduce climate change but also material use.

Shared mobility encompasses a variety of transportation choices, including:

Rental Automobile:

Individuals can hire cars temporarily, eliminating the demand for vehicle ownership and reducing the amount of vehicles on highways.

Vehicle Sharing:

Services like Lyft and Uber allow several customers to share transportation, reducing the frequency of individual travel and the accompanying emissions.

Public Transportation:

Investment in efficient and dependable public transportation systems, such as transit systems like trams, buses, and trains, offers substitutes for private car ownership.

These technologies have the potential to reduce transportation congestion drastically, and emissions and enhance urban air quality.

Reuse and Recycling Materials:

Recycling and reusing materials existing materials is an important strategy for lowering resource consumption. We can reduce the demand for new raw resources and waste by extending product and material lifecycles. The key approaches include:  

Recycling Initiatives:

Developing comprehensive recycling programs for metals, plastics, and electronics.

Products Design:

Creating items with adaptable parts that are easily fixed, upgraded, or recycled.

Circular Economy Approaches:

Implementing circular economy principles, which emphasize recovery of resources, reuse, and recycling throughout the product’s lifecycle.

These approaches not only conserve resources but also offer economic opportunities by fostering the growth of recycling and refurbishing enterprises.

Thermal Renovation of Buildings:

Buildings consume a significant amount of energy, notably for cooling and heating. Thermal renovation improves the energy effectiveness of existing buildings to reduce consumption and emissions of energy.

Key metrics include:


Applying superior insulation in roofing, floors, and walls can help reduce heat loss and increase thermal performance.

Window and Door:

Replace aging doors and windows with energy-efficient options to reduce heat transfer.

Heating and Cooling Facilities:

Upgrade to more efficient air conditioning, ventilation, and heating (HVAC) systems, as well as incorporate renewable energy sources like solar energy and heat pumps.

Thermal renovation not only lowers energy demand but also improves comfort and reduces utility expenditures for building occupants.


The move from fossil fuels to alternative energy is not without problems, particularly in terms of raw materials needed for renewable energy systems. However, innovative demand-side methods can result in large decreases in both resource usage and fossil fuel emissions. Efficiency, mobility sharing, and the concepts of the circular economy can be used to create a green and environmentally conscious future. This method not only contributes to climate change mitigation but also addresses the environmental and social effects of new material extraction and use.